The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia and its precursor, the Bandung Afro-Asian conference in 1955, were examples of soft balancing by weaker states towards great powers engaged in intense rivalry and conflict. As they had little material ability to constrain superpower conflict and arms build-ups, the newly emerging states under the leadership of India’s Jawaharlal Nehru, Egypt’s Gamal Abdel Nasser and Indonesia’s Sukarno, and later joined by Yugoslavia’s Josip Broz Tito, adopted a soft balancing strategy aimed at challenging the superpower excesses in a normative manner, hoping for preventing the global order from sliding into war.
The NAM is often not given credit for what it deserves, because by the 1970s, some of the key players, including India, began to lose interest in the movement as they formed coalitions with one or the other superpower to wage their conflicts with their neighbours. It is also not theorised by scholars properly. The Western countries often portrayed non-alignment as pro-Soviet or ineffective and the general intellectual opposition was the result of the Western scholarly bias against a coalitional move by the weaker states of the international system.
The international system is hierarchical and the expectation is that the weaker states should simply abide by the dictates of the stronger ones.
(This Passage has been taken from “The Hindu” Newspaper)
Q1. What can be the Title?
- Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
- The International System
- The Global Order
- None of these
Q2. When was NAM formed?
Answer 1-A, 2-B